a) Satan I (work 324) (1977) by HR Giger
b) The "King's Messenger in prison" for Lewis Carroll's Alice Through The Looking Glass (1871) by John Tenniel
c) The use of the Mad Hatter's head with hair sticking out near enough horizontally
d) So we have a chain hanging down from the wall and a jug below. So one of those hoops would become the eye while what looks like a flat piece seen from the edge becomes the projectile whether that's a bullet or a nail, I don't know which.
e) The use of the idea of a top hat